Sensory and cognitive functions are processed in discrete cortical areas and depend upon the integration of long range cortical and subcortical inputs. PV and SST inhibitory interneurons (cINs) gate these inputs and failure to do so properly is implicated in many neurodevelopmental disorders.The logic by which these interneuron populations are integrated into cortical circuits and how these vary across sensory versus associative cortical areas is unknown. To answer this question, we began by surveying the breadth of afferents impinging upon PV and SST cINs within distinct cortical areas. We found that presynaptic inputs to both cIN populations are similar and primarily dictated by their areal location. By contrast, the timing of when they receive these afferents is cell-type specific. In sensory regions, both SST and PV cINs initially receive thalamocortical first order inputs. While by adulthood PV cINs remain heavily skewed towards first order inputs, SST cINs receive an equal balance of first and higher order thalamic afferents. Remarkably, while perturbations to sensory experience affect PV cIN thalamocortical connectivity, SST cIN connectivity is disrupted in a model of fragile X syndrome (Fmr1 loss of function) but not a model of ASD (Shank3B loss of function). Altogether, these data provide a comprehensive map of cIN afferents within different functional cortical areas and reveal the region-specific logic by which PV and SST cIN circuits are established.
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Neuroscience