Macaques are the most common nonhuman primate (NHP) species used in neuroscience research. With the advancement of many neuroimaging techniques, new studies are beginning to apply multiple types of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), such as structural imaging (sMRI) with T1 and T2 weighted contrasts alongside diffusion weighed (DW) imaging. In studies involving rhesus macaques, this approach can be used to better understand micro-structural changes that occur during development, in various disease states or with normative aging. However, many of the available rhesus brain atlases have been designed for only one imaging modality, making it difficult to consistently define the same brain regions across multiple imaging modalities in the same subject. To address this, we created a brain atlas from 18 adult rhesus macaques that includes co-registered templates constructed from images frequently used to characterize macroscopic brain structure (T2/SPACE and T1/MP-RAGE), and a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) template. The DTI template was up-sampled from 1 mm isotropic resolution to resolution match to the T1 and T2-weighted images (0.5 mm isotropic), and the parameter map was derived for fractional anisotropy (FA). The labelmap volumes delineate 57 gray matter regions of interest (ROIs; 36 cortical regions and 21 subcortical structures), as well as 74 white matter tracts. Importantly, the labelmap overlays both the structural and diffusion templates, enabling the same regions to be consistently identified across imaging modalities. A specialized condensed version of the labelmap ROIs are also included to further extend the usefulness of this tool for imaging data with lower spatial resolution, such as functional MRI (fMRI) or positron emission tomography (PET).
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Neuroscience