A comparison of neuroanatomical features of the brain between humans and our evolutionary relatives, nonhuman primates, is key to understanding the human brain system and the neural basis of mental and neurological disorders. Although most comparative MRI studies of human and nonhuman primate brains have been based on brains of primates that had been used as subjects in experiments, it is essential to investigate various species of nonhuman primates in order to elucidate and interpret the diversity of neuroanatomy features among humans and nonhuman primates. To develop a research platform for this purpose, it is necessary to harmonize the scientific contributions of studies with the standards of animal ethics, animal welfare, and the conservation of brain information for long-term continuation of the field. In previous research, we first developed an open-resource repository of anatomical images obtained using 9.4-T ex vivo MRI of postmortem brain samples from 12 nonhuman primate species, and which are stored at the Japan Monkey Centre. In the present study, as a second phase, we released a collection of T2-weighted images and diffusion tensor images obtained in nine species: white-throated capuchin, Bolivian squirrel monkey, stump-tailed macaque, Tibet monkey, Sykes’ monkey, Assamese macaque, pig-tailed macaque, crested macaque, and chimpanzee. Our image repository should facilitate scientific discoveries in the field of comparative neuroscience. This repository can also promote animal ethics and animal welfare in experiments with nonhuman primate models by optimizing methods for in vivo and ex vivo MRI scanning of brains and supporting veterinary neuroradiological education. In addition, the repository is expected to contribute to conservation, preserving information about the brains of various primates, including endangered species, in a permanent digital form.
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Neuroscience