The Dual Mechanisms of Cognitive Control (DMCC) project provides an ambitious and rigorous empirical test of a theoretical framework that posits two key cognitive control modes: proactive and reactive. The framework central tenets are that proactive and reactive control reflect domain-general dimensions of individual variation, with distinctive neural signatures, involving lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) in interactions with other brain networks and circuits (e.g., frontoparietal, cingulo-opercular). In the DMCC project, each participant is scanned while performing theoretically-targeted variants of multiple well-established cognitive control tasks (Stroop, Cued Task-Switching, AX-CPT, Sternberg Working Memory) in three separate imaging sessions, that each encourage utilization of different control modes, plus also completes an extensive out-of-scanner individual differences battery. Additional key features of the project include a high spatio-temporal resolution (multiband) acquisition protocol, and a sample that includes a substantial subset of monozygotic twin pairs and participants recruited from the Human Connectome Project. Although data collection is still continuing (target N=200), we provide an overview of the study design and protocol, planned analytic approaches and methodological development, along with initial results (N=80) revealing novel evidence of a domain-general neural signature of reactive control. In the interests of scientific community building, the dataset will be made public at project completion, so it can serve as a valuable resource.
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Neuroscience