Are the sleep-dependent offline performance gains of visual perceptual learning (VPL) consistent with a use-dependent or learning-dependent model? Here, we found that a use-dependent model is inconsistent with the offline performance gains in VPL. In two training conditions with matched visual usages, one generated VPL (learning condition), while the other did not (interference condition). The use-dependent model predicts that slow-wave activity (SWA) during posttraining NREM sleep in the trained region increases in both conditions, in correlation with offline performance gains. However, compared with those in the interference condition, sigma activity, not SWA, during NREM sleep and theta activity during REM sleep, source-localized to the trained early visual areas, increased in the learning condition. Sigma activity correlated with offline performance gain. These significant differences in spontaneous activity between the conditions suggest that there is a learning-dependent process during posttraining sleep for the offline performance gains in VPL.
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Neuroscience