Reconstructing natural images and decoding their semantic category from fMRI brain recordings is challenging. Acquiring sufficient pairs (image,fMRI) that span the huge space of natural images is prohibitive. We present a novel self-supervised approach for fMRI-to-image reconstruction and classification that goes well beyond the scarce paired data. By imposing cycle consistency, we train our image reconstruction deep neural network on many "unpaired" data: a plethora of natural images without fMRI recordings (from many novel categories), and fMRI recordings without images. Combining high-level perceptual objectives with self-supervision on unpaired data results in a leap improvement over top existing methods, achieving: (i) Unprecedented image-reconstruction from fMRI of never-before-seen images (evaluated by image metrics and human testing); (ii) Large-scale semantic classification (1000 diverse classes) of categories that are never-before-seen during network training. Such large-scale (1000-way) semantic classification capabilities from fMRI recordings have never been demonstrated before. Finally, we provide evidence for the biological plausibility of our learned model.
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Neuroscience