Actin, spectrin, and associated molecules form a membrane-associated periodic skeleton (MPS) in neurons. The molecular composition and functions of the MPS remain incompletely understood. Here, using co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we identified hundreds of candidate MPS-interacting proteins that span diverse functional categories. We validated representative proteins in several of these categories, including previously unknown MPS structural components, as well as motor proteins, cell adhesion molecules, ion channels, and signaling proteins, demonstrating periodic distributions of ~20 proteins in neurons using super-resolution imaging. Genetic perturbations of the MPS and its interacting proteins further suggested functional roles of the MPS in axon-axon and axon-dendrite interactions and in axon diameter regulation, and implicated the involvement of MPS interactions with cell adhesion molecules and non-muscle myosin in these roles. These results provide new insights into the interactome of the MPS, and suggest new functions of the MPS in neurons.
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Neuroscience