May 9, 2021

Normal development of the brain: a survey of joint structural-functional brain studies

<p>Joint structural-functional (S-F) developmental studies present a novel approach to address the complex neuroscience questions on how the human brain works and how it matures. Joint S-F biomarkers have the inherent potential to model effectively the maturation of the brain, fill the information gap in temporal brain atlases, and demonstrate how the performance of the brain matures during the lifespan. This review presents the current state of knowledge on heterochronous and heterogeneous development of S-F links during the maturation period. The S-F relationship has been investigated in early-matured unimodal and prolonged-matured transmodal regions of the brain using a variety of structural and functional biomarkers and data acquisition modalities. Joint S-F unimodal studies have employed auditory and visual stimuli, while the main focus of joint S-F transmodal studies has been resting-state networks and working memory. However, non-significant associations between some structural and functional biomarkers and their maturation show that designing and developing effective S-F biomarkers is still a challenge in the field. Maturational characteristics of brain asymmetries have been poorly investigated by the joint S-F studies, and the results were inconsistent with previous non-joint ones. The inherent complexity of the brain performance can be modeled using multifactorial and nonlinear techniques as promising methods to simulate the impact of age on S-F relations considering their analysis challenges.</p>
<p> bioRxiv Subject Collection: Neuroscience</p>
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