Purpose: To investigate the neuroanatomical underpinning of healthy macaque brain cortical microstructure measured by diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) which characterizes non-Gaussian water diffusion. Methods: High-resolution DKI was acquired from 6 postmortem macaque brains. Neurofilament density (ND) was quantified based on structure tensor from neurofilament histological images of a different macaque brain sample. After alignment of DKI-derived mean kurtosis (MK) maps to the histological images, MK and histology-based ND were measured at corresponding regions of interests characterized by distinguished cortical MK values in the prefrontal/precentral-postcentral and temporal cortices. Pearson correlation was performed to test significant correlation between these cortical MK and ND measurements. Results: Heterogeneity of cortical MK across different cortical regions was revealed, with significantly and consistently higher MK measurements in the prefrontal/precentral-postcentral cortex compared to those in the temporal cortex across all 6 scanned macaque brains. Corresponding higher ND measurements in the prefrontal/precentral-postcentral cortex than in the temporal cortex were also found. The heterogeneity of cortical MK is associated with heterogeneity of histology-based ND measurements, with significant correlation between cortical MK and corresponding ND measurements (P <0.005). Conclusion: These findings suggested that DKI-derived MK can potentially be an effective noninvasive biomarker quantifying underlying neuroanatomical complexity inside the cerebral cortical mantle for clinical and neuroscientific research.
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Neuroscience