Changes in oscillatory activity are widely reported after subanesthetic ketamine, however their mechanisms of generation are unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that nasal respiration underlies the emergence of high-frequency oscillations (130-180 Hz, HFO) and behavioral activation after ketamine in freely moving rats. We found ketamine 20 mg/kg provoked "fast" theta sniffing in rodents which correlated with increased locomotor activity and HFO power in the OB. Bursts of ketamine-dependent HFO were coupled to "fast" theta frequency sniffing. Theta coupling of HFO bursts were also found in the prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum which, although of smaller amplitude, were in phase with OB activity. Haloperidol 1 mg/kg pretreatment prevented ketamine-dependent increases in fast sniffing and instead HFO coupling to slower basal respiration. Consistent with ketamine-dependent HFO being driven by nasal respiration, unilateral naris blockade led to an ipsilateral reduction in ketamine-dependent HFO power compared to the control side. Bilateral nares block-ade reduced ketamine-induced hyperactivity and HFO power and frequency. In conclusion, nasal entrainment of ketamine-dependent HFO across cortical and subcortical regions at theta frequencies represents a mechanism of orchestrated neural activity across distinct brain regions. The dense divergent connectivity of the olfactory system serves to broadcast this HFO to limbic areas.
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Neuroscience