Fast and wide imaging with single-cell resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio and no optical aberration has the potential to open up new avenues of investigation in biology. However, this imaging is challenging because of the inevitable tradeoffs among those parameters. Here, we overcome the tradeoffs by combining a resonant scanning system, a large objective with low magnification and high numerical aperture, and highly sensitive large-aperture photodetectors. The result is a practically aberration-free, fast scanning high optical invariant two-photon microscopy (FASHIO-2PM) that enables calcium imaging from a large network composed of ~16k neurons at 7.5 Hz in a 9 mm2 contiguous image plane including more than 10 sensory-motor and higher-order regions of the cerebral cortex in awake mice. Through a network analysis based on single-cell activities, we discover that the brain exhibits small-world-ness rather than scale-freeness. FASHIO-2PM will enable revealing biological dynamics by simultaneous monitoring of macroscopic activity and its composing elements.
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Neuroscience