Neural mismatch responses have been proposed to rely on different mechanisms, including prediction-related activity and adaptation to frequent stimuli. However, the cortical hierarchical structure of these mechanisms is unknown. To investigate this question, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and an auditory oddball design with a suited control condition that enabled us to delineate the contributions of prediction- or adaptation-related brain activation during deviance processing. We found that while predictive processes increased with the hierarchical position of the brain area, adaptation declined. This suggests that the relative contribution of different mechanisms in deviance processing varies across the cortical hierarchy.
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Neuroscience