Elucidating mechanisms underlying the clinical heterogeneity observed among individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is key to facilitate personalized treatments. We categorized 679 individuals with AD into subgroups based on a relative impairment in one cognitive domain (i.e. AD-Memory, AD-Executive-Functioning, AD-Language and AD-Visuospatial-Functioning). We compared atrophy patterns derived from MRI and identified patterns that closely matched the respective cognitive profiles, i.e. medial temporal lobe atrophy in AD-Memory, fronto-parietal in AD-Executive-Functioning, asymmetric left-temporal in AD-Language, and posterior in AD-Visuospatial-Functioning. We then determined spatial correlations between subgroup-specific atrophy and a transcriptomic atlas of gene expression, which revealed both shared (e.g. mitochondrial respiration and synaptic function/plasticity) and subgroup-specific (e.g. cell-cycle for AD-Memory, protein metabolism in AD-Language, and modification of gene expression in AD-Visuospatial-Functioning) biological pathways associated with each subgroup’s atrophy patterns. We conclude that cognitive heterogeneity in AD is related to neuroanatomical differences, and specific biological pathways may be involved in their emergence.
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Neuroscience