Synaptotagmin 1 is a vesicle-anchored membrane protein that functions as the Ca2+ sensor for synchronous neurotransmitter release. In this work, an arginine containing region in the second C2 domain of synaptotagmin 1 (C2B) is shown to control the expansion of the fusion pore and thereby the concentration of neurotransmitter released. This arginine apex, which is opposite the Ca2+ binding sites, interacts with membranes or membrane reconstituted SNAREs; however, only the membrane interactions occur under the conditions in which fusion takes place. Other regions of C2B influence the probably and kinetics of fusion but do not control the expansion of the fusion pore. These data indicate that the C2B domain has at least two distinct molecular roles in the fusion event, and the data are consistent with a novel model where the arginine apex of C2B positions the domain at the curved membrane surface of the expanding fusion pore.
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Neuroscience