Previous studies have demonstrated different patterns of results regarding cognitive benefits of bilingualism, ranging from bilingual advantage to no effect of bilingualism. This study examined the potential effect of bilingualism on cognitive resilience and performance. We recruited 21 Persian monolinguals and 19 Persian-English bilinguals. Color-Word Stroop task was used concurrently with verbal production tasks in order to produce three levels of task difficulty, i.e., doing the Stroop task while being silent (level 1), alphabet reciting (level 2), and counting odd numbers (level 3). We investigated the pattern of changes in Stroop task performance when faced with different difficulty levels Bilinguals showed less change in their performance in the Stroop task when faced with high cognitive load (high task difficulty level). However, monolinguals showed a significant decrease in their performance when the cognitive load increased. Our data support the Bilingual Advantage view. However, this advantage is highlighted in cognitively demanding tasks.
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Neuroscience