Segregation and integration are two fundamental principles of brain structural and functional organization. Neuroimaging studies have shown that the brain transits between different functionally segregated and integrated states, and neuromodulatory systems have been proposed as key to facilitate these transitions. Although computational models have reproduced the effect of neuromodulation at the whole-brain level, the role of local inhibitory circuits and their cholinergic modulation has not been studied. In this article, we consider a Jansen & Rit whole-brain model in a network interconnected using a human connectome, and study the influence of the cholinergic and noradrenergic neuromodulatory systems on the segregation/integration balance. In our model, a newly introduced local inhibitory feedback enables the integration of whole-brain activity, and its modulation interacts with the other neuromodulatory influences to facilitate the transit between different functional states. Our work proposes a new possible mechanism behind segregation and integration in the brain.
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Neuroscience