April 20, 2021

Loss of nigral excitation of cholinergic interneurons contributes to parkinsonian motor impairments

<p>Cai et al. find that partial degeneration of dopamine inputs in mice differentially alters how remaining SNc terminals regulate cholinergic interneurons via dopamine and glutamate transmission across the dorsomedial and dorsolateral …

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Expanding evolutionary neuroscience: insights from comparing variation in behavior

<p>Jourjine and Hoekstra advocate for studying not just single species but also groups of species (clades) in behavioral neuroscience. They argue that integrating comparative and experimental approaches in “model clades” …

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White matter aging drives microglial diversity

<p>Safaiyan et al. identify white matter-associated microglia (WAMs), which form in a TREM2-dependent but APOE-independent manner in aging white matter, where they form nodules that are engaged in phagocytosing damaged myelin. …

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Post-error recruitment of frontal sensory cortical projections promotes attention in mice

Norman et. al found that behavioral errors recruit frontal sensory projections in mice. 30-Hz optogenetic stimulation of this pathway modulates performance following errors in behaving mice and recapitulates neurophysiological hallmarks …

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Brain microvasculature has a common topology with local differences in geometry that match metabolic load

Ji et al. constructed the whole mouse brain microvascular connectome. Their analysis reveals a common network topology that leads to shared robustness against vessel rarefaction and stalled RBCs, while a heterogeneous …

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SARM1 is a metabolic sensor activated by an increased NMN/NAD+ ratio to trigger axon degeneration

Figley et al. demonstrate that SARM1, an inducible pro-degenerative NADase, is a metabolic sensor activated by an increase in the NMN/NAD+ ratio. The authors provide structural and functional insights into SARM1 …

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Neural state space alignment for magnitude generalization in humans and recurrent networks

How does the brain learn that both cheetahs and space rockets move “fast,” even though animals and vehicles belong in different semantic categories and do not look alike? We found …

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Tackling neurodegenerative diseases with genomic engineering: A new stem cell initiative from the NIH

The iPSC Neurodegenerative Disease Initiative (iNDI) is the largest-ever iPSC genome engineering project. iNDI will model more than 100 mutations associated with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD) in isogenic …

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A probabilistic hammer for nailing complex neural data analyses

In this issue of Neuron, Młynarski et al. (2021) provide a maxent-based normative method for flexible neural data analysis by combining data-driven and theory-driven approaches. The next challenge is identifying the …

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To err is (not only) human: Mechanisms of post-error attentional regulation illuminated in mice

Errors yield unfavorable outcomes but also elicit adaptive mechanisms optimizing future behavior. Norman et al. demonstrate a previously unknown direct projection from medial frontal performance-monitoring areas in mice that modulate visual …

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