The hallmark of resting EEG spectra are distinct rhythms emerging from a broadband, aperiodic background. This aperiodic neural signature accounts for most of total EEG power, although its significance and relation to functional neuroanatomy remains obscure. We hypothesized that aperiodic EEG reflects a significant metabolic expenditure and therefore might be associated with the default mode network while at rest. During eyes-open, resting-state recordings of simultaneous EEG-fMRI, we find that aperiodic and periodic components of EEG power are only minimally associated with activity in the default mode network. However, a whole-brain analysis identifies increases in aperiodic power correlated with hemodynamic activity in an auditory-salience-cerebellar network, and decreases in aperiodic power are correlated with hemodynamic activity in prefrontal regions. Desynchronization in residual alpha and beta power is associated with visual and sensorimotor hemodynamic activity, respectively. These findings suggest that resting-state EEG signals acquired in an fMRI scanner reflect a balance of top-down and bottom-up stimulus processing, even in the absence of an explicit task.
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Neuroscience