Achieving optimal behavior requires animals to flexibly retrieve prior knowledge. Here we show that adult newborn granule cells (anbGCs) mediate emotional-state-dependent plasticity of memory retrieval. We find that acute social reward (aSR) enhances memory retrieval by increasing the reactivation of engram cells, while acute social stress (aSS) weakens retrieval and reduces the reactivation. Such bidirectional regulation relies on the activation of distinct populations of anbGCs by aSR and aSS, triggering opposing modifications of dDG activity, which is sufficient to regulate and predict the performance of memory retrieval. Concordantly, in emotional disorder models, aSR-dependent memory plasticity is impaired, while the effect of aSS remains intact. Together, our data revealed that anbGCs mediate plasticity of memory retrieval, allowing animals to flexibly retrieve memory according to the current emotional state, and suggested the essential roles of anbGCs in translating emotional information to the regulation of memory expression.
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Neuroscience