Basal ganglia (BG) inhibit movement through two independent pathways, the indirect- and the hyperdirect-pathways. The globus pallidus (GP) has always been viewed as a simple relay within these two pathways, but its importance has changed drastically with the discovery of two functionally-distinct cell types, namely the prototypic and the arkypallidal neurons. Classic BG models suggest that all GP neurons receive GABAergic inputs from striato-pallidal indirect spiny projection neurons and glutamatergic inputs from subthalamic neurons. However, whether this synaptic connectivity scheme applies to both GP cell-types is currently unknown. Here, we optogenetically dissect the input organization of prototypic and arkypallidal neurons and further define the circuit mechanism underlying action inhibition in BG. Our results highlight that an increased activity of arkypallidal neurons is required to inhibit locomotion. Finally, this work supports the view that arkypallidal neurons are part of a novel disynaptic feedback loop that broadcast inhibitory control on movement execution.
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Neuroscience